In his Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Gardner expanded the concept of intelligence to also include such areas as music, spacial relations, and interpersonal knowledge in addition to mathematical and linguistic ability. Using biological as well as cultural research, he formulated a list of seven intelligences. This new outlook on intelligence differs greatly from the traditional view which usually recognizes only two intelligences, verbal and computational.
Introspection This area has to do with introspective and self-reflective capacities. It seems to me that the individual who is readily able to recognize flora and fauna, to make other consequential distinctions in the natural world, and to use this ability productively in hunting, in farming, in biological science is exercising an important intelligence and one that is not adequately encompassed in the current list.
This ability was clearly of value in our evolutionary past as hunters, gatherersand farmers ; it continues to be central in such roles as botanist or chef. Spiritual intelligence Gardner did not want to commit to a spiritual intelligence, but suggested that an "existential" intelligence may be a useful construct, also proposed after the original 7 in his book.
For example, the theory postulates that a child who learns to multiply easily is not necessarily more intelligent than a child who has more difficulty on this task. The child who takes more time to master multiplication may best learn to multiply through a different approach, may excel in a field outside mathematics, or may be looking at and understanding the multiplication process at a fundamentally deeper level.
This challenges the notion of fixed or static intelligence levels that general intelligence tests measure.
More importantly, it challenges the notion that intelligence test scores are an accurate predictor for future ability. The french semiologist Yves Richez corrects and overtakes the theory of multiple intelligences by the C.
P theory configuration, utility, potentiation . Definition of intelligence[ edit ] One major criticism of the theory is that it is ad hoc: This practice has been criticized by Robert J. Sternberg  Eysenck and Scarr.
He originally defined it as the ability to solve problems that have value in at least one culture, or as something that a student is interested in. He then added a disclaimer that he has no fixed definition, and his classification is more of an artistic judgment than fact: Gardner argues this causes the former to be needlessly aggrandized.
Certain critics are wary of this widening of the definition, saying that it ignores "the connotation of intelligence Thus, studying intelligence becomes difficult, because it diffuses into the broader concept of ability or talent.
Defenders of the MI theory would argue that this is simply a recognition of the broad scope of inherent mental abilities, and that such an exhaustive scope by nature defies a one-dimensional classification such as an IQ value.
The theory and definitions have been critiqued by Perry D. Klein as being so unclear as to be tautologous and thus unfalsifiable. Having a high musical ability means being good at music while at the same time being good at music is explained by having a high musical ability.
Those are greek-Latin inventions Platon. Neo-Piagetian criticism[ edit ] Andreas Demetriou suggests that theories which overemphasize the autonomy of the domains are as simplistic as the theories that overemphasize the role of general intelligence and ignore the domains.
He agrees with Gardner that there are indeed domains of intelligence that are relevantly autonomous of each other. All of these processes are integral components of general intelligence that regulate the functioning and development of different domains of intelligence.
Their functioning both channels and influences the operation of the general processes. In this context, humans are contrasted to social insects that indeed have a distributed "intelligence" of specialists, and such insects may spread to climates resembling that of their origin but the same species never adapt to a wide range of climates from tropical to temperate by building different types of nests and learning what is edible and what is poisonous.
While some such as the leafcutter ant grow fungi on leaves, they do not cultivate different species in different environments with different farming techniques as human agriculture does.
It is therefore argued that human adaptability stems from a general ability to falsify hypotheses and make more generally accurate predictions and adapt behavior thereafter, and not a set of specialized abilities which would only work under specific environmental conditions.
He argues the importance of assessing in an "intelligence-fair" manner. While traditional paper-and-pen examinations favor linguistic and logical skills, there is a need for intelligence-fair measures that value the distinct modalities of thinking and learning that uniquely define each intelligence.
Kaufman points out that IQ tests have measured spatial abilities for 70 years. While IQ tests do give an overall IQ score, they now also give scores for many more narrow abilities. According to the study, each of the domains proposed by Gardner involved a blend of g, of cognitive abilities other than g, and, in some cases, of non-cognitive abilities or of personality characteristics.
In contrast, empirical support for non-g intelligences is either lacking or very poor. She argued that despite this the ideas of multiple non-g intelligences are very attractive to many due to the suggestion that everyone can be smart in some way.
To date, there have been no published studies that offer evidence of the validity of the multiple intelligences. In Sternberg reported finding no empirical studies.
In Allix reported finding no empirical validating studies, and at that time Gardner and Connell conceded that there was "little hard evidence for MI theory"p. In Sternberg and Grigerenko stated that there were no validating studies for multiple intelligences, and in Gardner asserted that he would be "delighted were such evidence to accrue",  and admitted that "MI theory has few enthusiasts among psychometricians or others of a traditional psychological background" because they require "psychometric or experimental evidence that allows one to prove the existence of the several intelligences.From peplums to giallos, from low budget British comedies to Eurospy films, from Spaghetti Westerns to.
Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences helps educators think differently about "IQ," and about what being "smart" means.
The theory is changing the way some teachers teach. When Howard Gardner's book, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Basic Books, ) burst on the scene, it seemed to answer many . Howard Gardner of Harvard has identified seven distinct intelligences.
This theory has emerged from recent cognitive research and "documents the extent to which students possess different kinds of minds and therefore learn, remember, perform, and understand in different ways," according to Gardner (). What is the theory of multiple intelligences (M.I.)?
How does this theory differ from the traditional definition of intelligence?
What do multiple intelligences . Intrapersonal Intelligence. Very few of us will have been taught the importance of developing Intrapersonal skills for the ability to reflect and monitor your own progress, thoughts and feelings, strengths and weaknesses are not encouraged in educations.
Indeed, education has its own formal tests that we must attend to. Those few who do posses Intrapersonal Intelligence have often acquired it.
hierarchical view of mtb15.com Gardner’s ﬁrst clai m—that most psy-chometricians believe that intelligence is unitary—is inaccurate.