Evolution assumes that all living things are inter-related. Humans are supposed to have developed from some simpler forms. Most of the scientists today accept the basic principle of evolution but they have varying views regarding how evolution has taken place or how far it has gone.
Australopithecus africanus -- The word "Australopithecus" means "southern ape. Raymond Dart, professor of Genus australopithecus at Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg, was the first to study these fossils.
In at Taung in South Africa, Dart discovered a fossil skull consisting of a full face, teeth and jaws, and an endocranial cast of the brain. The brain size was cc.
Its age is currently felt to be around two to three million years old. Dart was convinced that some teeth were man-like and thus concluded a transition between apes and man. His opinions on the matter of this particular skull were largely scorned by the scientists of this time who considered it nothing more than a young chimpanzee now considered to be about three years of age.
The skull was soon known derisively as "Dart's baby. With Piltdown Man's human cranium and apelike jaw, it was hard to reconcile it to the Taung Child.
Although Dart gave up fossil hunting for some time, all was not lost.
Years after the discovery of the "Taungs child", as it is known today, Dart and Broom found other Australopithecines at Kromdraii, Swartkrans and Makapansgat. These finds of similar creatures seemed to vindicate Dart and Broom, and the scientific community again accepted their finds as they do today.
These new fossil Australopithecines seemed to show two parallel lines of development, one Genus australopithecus a small "gracile" slender type and the other a larger "robust" type. Much controversy has existed regarding these types and some investigators, including Richard Leakey, have concluded that they represent merely the male and female of the same species while others say the gracile form, which is believed to be older, evolved into the robust form.
Today these animals are known as Australopithecus africanus and Australopithecus robustus respectively. The latter is clearly heavier, has more massive jaws, and a pronounced sagital crest. All these traits are typical of sexual dimorphism in male apes.
What is also felt to be a more human trait is that foramen magnum the opening in the skull above the attachment of the spinal column in Australopithecines seems to be placed in an intermediate forward position between that of modern apes and man.
Although not as far forward as in man, this more forward position is felt to indicate a more upright posture for the Australopithecines.
The australopithecines have often been found in association with other animals, such as baboons, and often show evidence of bashed-in skulls. Tools in the form of clubs, knives, and choppers have been found in association, as well as evidence of fire.
It might be attractive to assume that the Australopithecines had been the hunters and butchers except that some of their skulls were broken in as well. Were they then the hunters or the hunted?
An American journalist met up with Dart who convinced him that the Australopithecines were actually hunting one another.
|The basic rule for writing a scientific name||Early species and Australopithecus anamensis Identifying the earliest member of the human tribe Hominini is difficult because the predecessors of modern humans become increasingly apelike as the fossil record is followed back through time. They resemble what would be expected in the common ancestor of humans and apes in that they possess a mix of human and ape traits.|
|Australopithecus - Wikipedia||After diverging from the line to Ponginae the early Homininae split into the tribes Hominini and Gorillini. The early Hominini split further, separating the line to Homo from the lineage of Pan.|
The journalist, Robert Ardrey wrote a book, African Genesis, which popularized the view of the "killer ape. Not bad for a primitive man who is still not yet walking completely upright and has a head the size of a chimp less than cc max. Although modern scientists do generally accept that Australopithecines had a generally upright gait and human-like posture, this notion has not gone uncontested.
Although evolutionists predictably discount Zuckerman's work, arguing that it is no longer accepted further discussion of such arguments a few paragraphs belowone must still at least consider the fact that in the s the famous British anatomist, Lord Solly Zuckerman, aggressively rejected the notion that Australopithecines are closely related to humans and completely discounted the notion that they walked upright like humans.
Rather, Zuckerman suggested that they be classified as apes, not hominids Evolution as a Process, It is the ape - so much so that only detailed and close scrutiny can reveal any differences between them".
As for the notion of "bipedal posture", Zuckerman said: Charles Oxnard of the University of Chicago, who's work modern evolutionists also reject see belowclaimed in a paper published in a edition of Nature that: These suggest that the common view, that these fossils are similar to modern man, may be incorrect.
Most of the fossil fragments are in fact uniquely different from both man and man's nearest living genetic relatives, the chimpanzee and gorilla Nature Homo (Latin homō "human being") is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on a species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.
The genus is taken to emerge with the appearance of Homo habilis, just more than two million years . While primitive in some respects, the face, skull, and teeth show enough modern features to justify H. naledi's placement in the genus Homo.
Artist Gurche spent some hours reconstructing the. The Australopithecines. This large group of species comprises both the gracile and the robust australopithecines. Recently some scientists have suggested that some species presently assigned to the Homo clade would be better placed in Australopithecus - an example of how rapidly our understanding of our evolutionary past is changing, and of the reviews, discussion and disagreements that.
Human Evolution. In the simplest sense,evolution means the slow process of change from a simple to a more complex structure. Evolution assumes that all living things are inter-related. Piltdown Man--Eanthropus dawsoni or "dawn man." Discovered in by Charles Dawson, a medical doctor and amateur paleontologist.
Dawson found a mandible and a small piece of a skull in a gravel pit near Piltdown England. The word "hominid" in this website refers to members of the family of humans, Hominidae, which consists of all species on our side of the last common ancestor of humans and living apes.